Artist Titian, Italian, ca.1488-1576
Title
  • The Appeal
Date between early to mid-16th century
Medium oil on canvas
Dimensions Unframed: 33 1/4 × 27 1/4 inches (84.5 × 69.2 cm)
Credit Line City of Detroit Purchase
Accession Number 26.107
Department European Painting
On View European: Medieval and Renaissance W233, Level 2 (see map)
Inscriptions On verso of original canvas corresponding to the figures from right to left, the old inscriptions: FRA BASTIAN DEL PIOMBO GIORZON TITIAN (Picture of old canvas in registration and curatorial files).
Palazzo Zanchi (Bergamo, Italy).
Until 1642, Nicholas Sohier [1588-1642] (Amsterdam, Netherlands).
Until 1702, Prince Guillaume III d'Orange [1650-1702] (Het Loo Palace, Apeldoorn, Netherlands);
1702-1713, Estate of Guillaume III d'Orange (Het Loo Palace, Apeldoorn, Netherlands);
July 26, 1713, purchase by (dealer, Cornelis Hellemans) at auction Het Loo, lot 17 (Oudezijds Herenlogement, Amseterdam, Netherlands) [for 660 guilders];
Before 1719, (dealer, Van Caassiau) purchased for Lothar Franz von Schönborn
1719-1729, Count Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Elector of Mainz [1655-1729] (Schloss Weißenstein, Pommersfelden, Germany);
1729-1867, by decent Friedrich Karl von Schönborn [1674-1746] and the Counts Schönborn (Schloss Weißenstein, Pommersfelden, Germany);
July 17-24, 1867, sold at auction Count Schönborn (Paris, France) [for 21,500 francs].
1867-1923, Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke Oldenburg [1852-1931] (Oldenburg, Germany) [valuation in 1919 Gustav Pauli inventory 80,000 M.];
1926, (dealers Julius Wilhelm Böhler and Fritz Steinmeyer, The Lucerne Fine Arts Company/Kunsthandel AG, Lucerne, Switzerland; Munich, Germany; New York) [painting stayed in Germany];
1926-present, purchase by the Detroit Institute of Arts (Detroit, Michigan, USA)
Heller, J. Die Graflich Schonborniche Gemalde Sammlung zu Schloss Weissenstein in Pommersfelden. Bamburg, 1845, p. 24. [as by Giorgione]

Mundler, E. "Paiser Kunstversteigerungen." Kunstchronik 2, ser. 1 (1867): p. 134. [as by Cariani]

Crowe, Joseph Archer and Giovanni Battista Cavacaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy, vol. 6. London, 1871, p. 615. [as by Cariani]

Crowe, Joseph Archer and Giovanni Battista Cavacaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy, vol. 2. London, 1871, vol. 2, p. 553.

Bode, Wilhem von. "Die Grossherzogliche Gemälde-galerie zu Oldenburg." Gesellschaft für vervielfaltigende Kunst. Vienna, 1888, p. 20.

Morelli, Giovanni. Die Galerien zu München und Dresden. Leipzig, 1891, p. 32. [as by Cariani]

Berenson, Bernhard. The Venetian Painters of the Renaissance: With an Index to their Works, 3rd ed. New York, 1894, p. 100. [as by Cariani]

Venturi, Adolfo. La Galleria Crespi in Milano. Milan, 1900, p. 151. [as by Cariani]

Benkard, Ernst A. "D'Achiardi, Sebastiano del Piombo." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft, vol. 31 (1908): 572–575, p. 573.

Foratti, Aldo. "L'arte di Giovanni Cariani." L'Arte, XIII (1907): pp. 177-190, 185, note 4.

Crowe, Joseph Archer and Giovanni Battista Cavacaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy, Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century, vol. 3. London, 1912, pp. 454–455, pl. III (ill.). [as an early work by Cariani]

Borenius, Tancred. "The Venetian School in the Grand Ducal Collection, Oldenburg." Burlington Magazine 23 (April 1913): 25–35, pp. 26–28, pl. 3. [as Cariani]

Venturi, Lionello. Giorgione e il giorgionismo. Milan, 1913, pp. 234–235.

Annual Report for the City of Detroit for the Year 1926. Detroit, 1926, pp. 178, 184.

Mather, Frank Jewett Jr. "An Enigmatic Venetian Picture at Detroit." Art Bulletin 9, no. 1 (September 1926): pp. 70–75 (fig. 1). [as pastiche ca. 1600]

Valentiner, W. "A Combined Work by Titian, Giorgione, and Sebastiano del Piombo." Bulletin of the DIA 7, no. 6 (March 1926): pp. 62-65 (ill.). [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione.]

"A Painting by Three Great Artists." The Mentor 15 (June 1927): p. 40 (ill.).

Heil, Walter. "Some Recently Acquired Pictures of the Venetian School." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 8, no. 5 (February 1927): 50–53, p. 50.

Heffner, Edward. "Archaeological Discussions." American Journal of Archaeology 31, no. 2 (April–June 1927): 186–225, p. 216.

Heil, Walter. "A Portrait by Titian." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 9, no. 2 (November 1927): 14–15, p.14.

Schubring, Paul. "A Surmise Concerning the Subject of the Venetian Figure in the Detroit Museum." Art in America 15, no. 1 (December 1927): pp. 35-40 (ill.). [attributed to Cariani]

Valentiner, William R. "Once More the Venetian Three-Figured Painting in Detroit." Art in America 16, no. 1 (October 1927): pp. 40–44. [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione]

Heil, Walter. Sixth Loan Exhibition of Old Masters: Paintings by Titian. Exh. cat., Detroit Institute of Arts. Detroit, 1928, cat. 2 (ill.).

Venturi, Adolfo. Storia dell'Arte 9, no. 3 (1928): no. 35, pp. 462 ff, pl. 305. [as by Cariani]

Heil, Walter. Catalogue of Paintings in the Permanent Collection of the Detroit Institute of Arts. Detroit, 1930, cat. 228 (ill.). [as by Titian and Collaborators, tentatively identified as Sebastiano del Piombo and Giorgione]

Berenson, Bernhard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 10, p. 569. [as "Busts of Two Women and a Man" by Cariani, left figure considered to be by Titian]

Suida, Wilhelm. Tizian. Leipzig, 1933, pp. 30, 153, 182, no. XXXIIb (ill.).

Suida, Wilhelm. Tiziano. Rome, 1933, pp. 29, 149, 178, no. XXXXIIb (ill.)

Gombosi, G[yörgy]. "Sebastiano del Piombo." In Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler 27, ed. Hans Vollmer et al. Leipzig, 1933, pp. 71, 73.

Suida, Wilhelm. Le Titien. Paris, 1935, p. 29, 157, 191, no. XXXIIb (ill.). [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione]

Pallucchini, Rodolfo. "La Formazione di Sebastiano del Piombo." Critica d'Arte 1, no. 8 (October 1935): p. 42, note 17. [as 17th century pastiche]

Berenson, Bernhard. I pittori italiani del Rinascimento. Milan, 1936, p. 489. [as by Titian and school.]

Gombosi, György. Palma Vecchio: Des Meisters Gemälde und Zeichnungen. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1937, p. 135.

Phillips, Duncan. The Leadership of Giorgione. Washington, 1937, p. 174.

Richter, George Martin. Giorgione da Castelfranco called Giorgione. Basel, 1937, p. 321.

Richardson, Edgar P. "A Bibliography of the Writings of William R. Valentiner From 1930 to 1940." Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 19, no. 8 (May 1940): 91–111, p.102.

Dussler, Luitpold. Sebastiano del Piombo. Basel, 1942, p. 151, no. 85. [as 17th century pastiche.]

Giorgione and his Circle. Exh. cat., Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore, 1942, p. 31, cat. 15, pl. 15 (ill.).

Morassi, Antonio. Giorgione. Milan, 1942, pp. 172–173, 224, pl. 120 (ill.). [as by Palma Vecchio.]

Richardson, Edgar Preston, ed. The Detroit Institute of Arts, Catalogue of Paintings. Detroit, 1944 pp. 134–135. [as by Titian and collaborators; suggests that picture represents Jason, Medea, and Kreusa]

Fiocco. Giuseppe. Giorgione. Bergamo, 1948, pp. 12–14, 144 (ill.). [as perhaps by Cariani]

"The Arts Commission Annual Report for the Year 1953: Care of the Collection" Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts of the City of Detroit 33, no. 2 (1953–1954), p. 43.

Robertson, Giles. Vincenzo Catena. Edinburgh, 1954, p. 25.

Pignatti, Terisio. Giorgione. Milan, 1955, p. 120.

Robertson, Giles. “The Giorgione Exhibition in Venice.” Burlington Magazine 97, no. 630 (September 1955): 272–277, 279, p. 276.

Zampetti, Pietro, ed. Giorgione e I giorgioneschi. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale. Venice, 1955, no. 43.

Zampetti, Pietro. "Pastille alla mostra di Giorgione." Arte Veneta, Annata IX, no. I (1955): pp. 65–68, nos. 33–36, fig. 73 (ill.).

Suida, Wilhelm. "Giorgione in American Museums." Art Quarterly 19 (Summer 1956): pp. 145-152, 150, pl. 69 (ill.). [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione]

Berenson, Bernhard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance, A List of the Principal Artists and their Works: Venetian School. London, 1957, vol. 1: p. 184. [as partly by Titian]

Masterpieces of Art in Memory of W. R. Valentiner. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. Raleigh, 1959, p. 279, pl. XLVII (ill.). [listed under supplement, not included in the exhibition]

Volpe, Carlo. Giorgione. Milan, 1964, p. 6. [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione.]

Paintings in the Detroit Institute of Arts: A Checklist of the Paintings. Detroit, 1965, p. 108.

Zampetti, Pietro. The Complete Paintings of Giorgione. New York, 1968, p. 94, no. 30. [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione. See also Italian version: L'opera completa di Giorgione. Milan, 1968, p. 94, no. 30.]

Pallucchini, Rodolfo. Tiziano. Florence, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 20, 238; vol. 2: figs. 52–53 (ill.). [as by Sebastiano, Titian and Giorgione]

Valcanover, Francesco. L'opera completa di Tiziano. Milan, 1969, p. 91, no. 19. [as by an imitator of Titian]

Pignatti, Terisio. Giorgione. London, 1971, p. 119, no. A10, pl. 203. [attributed to Giorgione.]

Wethey, Harold E. The Complete Paintings of Titian. Vol. 2, The Portraits. London, 1971, p. 152, no. X.5.

Fredericksen, Burton B. and Frederico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, MA, 1972, pp. 87, 185, 202, 542, 579. [as "Two Women and a Man in Conversation" by Titian]

Kurz, Otto. "Early Art Forgeries from the Renaissance to the Eighteenth Century." Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 121, no. 5198 (January 1973): 74–90, pp. 84–85.

Pignatti, Terisio and Kenneth Donahue, eds. The Golden Century of Venetian Painting. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Los Angeles, 1979, pp. 58-59, 159, cat. 13. [as by Palma Vecchio]

Sutton, Denys. "Venetian Painting of the Golden Age." Apollo 110 (November 1979): pp. 374-386, pp. 378, 380, fig. 10 (ill.). [as by Titian]

Ballarin, Alessandro. "Tiziano prima del Fondaco dei Tedeschi." Tiziano e Venezia…Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studi, ed. Massimo Gemin and Giannantonio Paladini. Venice, 1980, pp. 493–499, p. 497, note 6.

Lucco, Mauro. L'opera completa di Sebastiano del Piombo. Milan, 1980, pp. 96–97, no. 19, pl. 17.

Safarik, Eduard and Gabriello Milantoni eds. Catlogo Sommario della Galleria Colonna in Roma: Dipinti. Busto Arsizio, 1981, p. 139 (see no 196).

Pallucchini, Rodolfo and Francesco Rossi. Giovanni Cariani. Bergamo, 1983, pp. 288–290, p. 289, no. A33 (ill.). [as by Sebastiano, Titian, Giorgione]

Garas, Klara. "Musici, adultere e conversazione. La "fortuna" del Pordenone nel collezione europeo tra sei e settecento." Atti del Convegno internazionale di studio, Pordenone [Proceedings of the International Studies Convention, Pordenone.] Prodenone, 1984, pp. 111–112.

Furlan, Caterina. Il Pordenone. Milan, 1988, no. A8, p. 332.

Paintings from England: William III and the Royal Collections. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis. The Hague, 1988, p. 38.

Rylands, Philip. Palma il Vecchio. L'opera completa. Milan, 1988, no. A22, p. 275.

'Le tre età dell'uomo' della Galleria Palatina. Exh. cat. Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 1989, p. 7.

Le Siècle de Titien: L’âge d’or de la printure à Venise. Exh. cat., Grand Palais. Paris, 1993, p. 349, cat. no. 34, (ill.) p. 48. [as by Sebastiano del Piombo]

Jonckheere, Koenraad. "'When the Cabinet from Het Loo Was Sold': The Auction of William III’s Collection of Paintings, 26 July 1713." Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 31, no. 3 (2004–2005): 15–215, p. 173, 196 (see lot 17), fig. 12 (ill.).

Furlan, Italo. "Giuseppe Fico e il Pordenone." Saggi e Memorie di stori dell’arte 29 (2005): 299–312, pp. 304–305, 308, fig. 17 (ill.). [as by Il Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio de' Sacchis]

Holberton, Paul. "Giorgione's sfumato." Giorgione Entmythisiert, ed. Sylvia Ferino-Pagden. Turnhout, 2008, pp. 62-63, fig. 4 (ill.). [as anonymous pastiche]

Jonchkeere, Koenraad. The Auction of King William’s Paintings (1713): Elite International Art Trade at the End of the Dutch Golden Age. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 2008, pp. 23, 167–169, 249, fig. 113 (ill.).

Lindermann, Bernd Wolfgang and Claudio Strinati. Raffaels Grazie–Michelangelos Furor: Sebastiano del Piombo 1487–1547. Exh. cat., Gemaldgalerie. Rome, Berlin, and Cenate Sotto, 2008, pp. 110–111, no. 8 (ill.). [as by Titian, Giorgione and Sebastiano del Piombo]

Lindermann, Bernd Wolfgang and Claudio Strinati. Sebastiano del Piombo 1487–1547. Exh. cat., Palazzo Benezia and Gemaldgalerie. Rome, Berlin, and Cenate Sotto, 2008, cat. no. 8, pp. 110–111 (ill.). [as by Titian, Giorgione and Sebastiano del Piombo]

Baker-Bates, Piers. "Reviewed Work(s): Sebastiano del Piombo 1485–1547 by Claudio Strinati and Bernard Wolfgang Lindermann." Renaissance Studies 23, no 1 (February 2009): 108–120, p. 113.

Pozzolo, Enrico Maria dal. Giorgione. Milan, 2009, pp. 362, 367, pl. 328 (ill.). [as by Niccolo Frangipane]

Rossi, Alessandro. "The Aristotelic phantasmata and the simulacra theory of Lucretius in a Painting Attributed to Giorgione, Titian, and Sedastiano del Piombo" in Practiques du Hasard: Pour un materialism de la recontre, ed. Jonathan Pollock. Perpignan, 2012, pp. 194–214 (ill).

Dohe, Sebastian, Malve Anna Falk and Rainer Stamm, eds. Die Gemäldegalerie Oldenburg: Eine europäische Altmeistersammlung. Oldenburg, 2017, pp. 162–163 (ill.).